The lo-fi repair techniques are improvised and crowdsourced in Mumbai from a growing network of "repair wallahs". Want to know whether a particular chip is malfunctioning, but you can't afford a costly oscilloscope? Simple: spray foam on the chip and watch closely where the froth melts first. Check the pattern against the picture in the manual and bingo: a diagnosis.
Venkatraman believes that Rai and his fellow workers hold the key to transforming innovation in emerging economies. They also see this so-called "frugal" innovation having a wider impact: the methods used in the workshops of Manila and Mumbai will turn Western norms of production and design on their heads.
The frugal ethos aims to build products that, despite limited resources, solve a real local problem. What if the future is products that aren't insanely great, simply ones that are "good enough"?